By Patrick J. Hurley
Tens of hundreds of thousands of scholars have realized to be extra discerning at developing and comparing arguments with the aid of Patrick J. Hurley. Hurley's lucid, pleasant, but thorough presentation has made A CONCISE creation TO common sense the main frequent common sense textual content in North the United States. moreover, the book's accompanying technological assets, akin to CengageNOW and studying common sense, contain interactive workouts in addition to video and audio clips to enhance what you learn within the publication and listen to at school. briefly, you'll have all of the advice you must turn into a extra logical philosopher and communicator.
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Extra resources for A Concise Introduction to Logic (10th Edition)
In general, a passage contains an argument if it purports to prove something; if it does not do so, it does not contain an argument. Two conditions must be fulﬁlled for a passage to purport to prove something: 1. At least one of the statements must claim to present evidence or reasons. 2. There must be a claim that the alleged evidence supports or implies something— that is, a claim that something follows from the alleged evidence or reasons. As we have seen, the statements that claim to present the evidence or reasons are the premises, and the statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply is the 14 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts conclusion.
In reviewing the list of indicators, note that “for this reason” is a conclusion indicator, whereas “for the reason that” is a premise indicator. “For this reason” (except when followed by a colon) means for the reason (premise) that was just given, so what follows is the conclusion. On the other hand, “for the reason that” announces that a premise is about to be stated. Sometimes a single indicator can be used to identify more than one premise. Consider the following argument: It is vitally important that wilderness areas be preserved, for wilderness provides essential habitat for wildlife, including endangered species, and it is a natural retreat from the stress of daily life.
Premises Conclusion Claimed evidence What is claimed to follow from the evidence If an argument does not contain a conclusion indicator, it may contain a premise indicator. Some typical premise indicators are since as indicated by because for in that may be inferred from as given that seeing that for the reason that inasmuch as owing to Any statement following one of these indicators can usually be identiﬁed as a premise. Example: Expectant mothers should never use recreational drugs, since the use of these drugs can jeopardize the development of the fetus.