By Michael J. White (auth.), Michael J. White (eds.)
It isn't very marvelous that it used to be no much less precise in antiquity than it really is this day that grownup humans are held to be accountable for such a lot in their activities. certainly, almost all cultures in all old sessions appear to have had a few perception of human corporation which, within the absence of convinced responsibility-defeating stipulations, involves such accountability. Few philosophers have had the temerity to take care of that this entailment is trivial simply because such responsibility-defeating stipulations are continually current. one other no longer very magnificent truth is that historic thinkers tended to ascribe integrality to "what is" (to on). that's, they often appeared "what is" as a cosmos or entire with distinguishable components that healthy jointly in a few coherent or cohesive demeanour, instead of both as a "unity" without elements or as a suite containing individuals (ta onta or "things that are") status in no "natural" relatives to each other. 1 The philoso phical challenge of determinism and accountability might, i feel, top be characterised as follows: it's the challenge of maintaining the phenomenon of human enterprise (which would appear to require a definite separateness of person humans from the remainder of the cosmos) whilst one units in regards to the philosophical or clinical job of explaining the integrality of "what is" via the advance of a conception of causation or clarification ( recommendations that got here to be lumped jointly via the Greeks lower than the time period "aitia") .
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Additional resources for Agency and Integrality: Philosophical Themes in the Ancient Discussions of Determinism and Responsibility
When the foregoing conditions are satisfied] said to have gone there "by chance" (apo tuches) .... It is the case that what occurs by chance occurs accidentally, and chance is a cause considered as an accident. , without qualification] of anything (kata symbebekos gar gignetai, kai estin aition has symbebekos; he tuche has d'haplas oudenos). For instance, a housebuilderis the cause of a house: accidentally, a flute player [may be]. And the causes of the person's coming and getting the money, when he did not come on account ofthat, are innumerable: wishing to see someone, following someone, avoiding someone, or going to see a spectacle.
It may plausibly be suggested that the Aristotelian conception of the proper good and attendant natural kinesis of a thing, which is derived from first mover - or at least, the hOr11re to this kinesis which is derived from the first mover - anticipates the "perfect and principal" (perfectae et principa/es) causes of the Stoics, and of Chrysippus, in particular. And it seems equally reasonable to see in the more favourable attitude toward the external factors operative in change at the sublunary level, an anticipation of the Stoic "assisting and proximate" (adiuvantes et proximae) causes identified with the working of fate (heimarmene).
We tum now to a passage in the De caelo where Aristotle purports to derive his temporal account of "absolute" necessity and possibility. C. ARISTOTLE'S FUNDAMENTAL MODAL PRINCIPLE Aristotle, as we have seen, accepts a "first-order" version of the plentitude principle for his concept of "absolute" necessity: (T') No absolute possibility remains unactualized through all time. This principle, which constitutes the "controversial half" of the temporalfrequency conception of the (absolute) modalities, does not seem to have been regarded as an "ultimate premise" by Aristotle, however.