By Andrew Brookes
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Extra resources for Air War Over Russia
By this time the press had at last acquired a full set of Cyrillic types (Fig. ”125 Printing was completed in May 1696, in an edition of 300. ] Figure 4 Cyrillic letters, with their names, numerical values, and a pronunciation guide in Latin letters, as printed in Ludolf ’s Grammatica Russica (Oxford, 1696). 126 Ludolf spent the following winter in Halle with August Hermann Francke, the Pietist leader, who had already taught himself some Russian using a copy of the Grammar. Francke was a founder of the University of Halle, where in 1702 he established a Collegium Orientale Theologicum that was to include a center for Slavic studies, a labor in which Ludolf assisted.
Black, a historian whose interests included Russia. ”63 In Black’s view, not only did the epochal search in question yield an immense and variously problematic “accumulation of knowledge,” most dramatically in the natural sciences, but applications of the latter in the form of technology “revolutionized” the conduct of human affairs, and with obviously ambiguous results. ” Black was on well-trodden historiographical ground in iden- 19 i n t ro du c t i on 20 tifying the Scientiﬁc Revolution as the seedbed of a modernity that leveled traditional hierarchies, dissolved established communities, corroded received morality, spurred innovation, promoted economic expansion, and displaced religious or mythic worldviews with rationalist and progressivist ones; and then in contrasting the “dynamism” and “openness” of this modern world with the “static, closed, and quiescent” nature of what were by comparison premodern or unmodern, medieval, traditional, or primitive societies.
Revolutionary contexts, it will be shown, bred revolutionary texts; just as the latter helped interrelatedly to make a cultural revolution. All of the texts in question—the Military Statute of 1716, the Naval Statute of 1720, the Ecclesiastical Regulation of 1721, the Project of 1724 enacting the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the numerous translated textbooks and treatises, the orations, dictionaries, grammars, and so on—are treated in the following chapters each as a semantic whole but also as a web of individual terms and words each with a seman- 23 i n t ro du c t i on 24 tic career of its own, usually of centuries’ duration (from Peter’s time to the present).