By Alexander Rainy Maclean Murray
First released in 1953, this seminal creation to political philosophy is meant for either the scholar of political conception and for the overall reader. After an advent and is the reason the character and goal of philosophy, Dr Murray presents a serious exam of the primary theories complex via political philosophers from Plato to Marx, paying distinctive realization to modern concerns. The e-book additionally attempts to outline the basic problems with philosophical value in modern politics, with targeted connection with the clash among political authority and person rights, and to teach how the several ethical assumptions underlying authoritarian and democratic platforms of presidency are finally dependent upon assorted theories of good judgment.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Political Philosophy, 1st Edition
Those who are responsible for formulating and applying the policy of the state. They constitute what we should now simply call 'the government*. Socrates thinks that in an Ideal State these three classes are each distinguished by a dominant characteristic. The producers are characterized by temperance, by which he means readiness to recognize the authority of the guardians. The auxiliaries are characterized by courage, by which he means readiness to face danger andfightbravely in overcoming it And the guardians are characterized by wisdom, by which he means a capacity for true judgment, particularly about the moral value of things.
It is certainly true that in Books 1 2 A History ofPolitical Theory, p. 90. Aristotle (1923). 38 An Introduction to Political Philosophy H, HI, VII, and VIE Aristotle is more interested in describing an Ideal State; whereas in Books IV-VI he assumes that the political ideal varies from state to state and argues that the duty of government is to realize that political ideal as completely as possible whatever form it may take. Apart from philosophy in the strict sense, Plato was mainly interested in mathematics and Aristotle in biology, and their political philosophies in many ways reflect this difference.
Plato's Criticism of Democracy An important feature of the theory attributed to Socrates is the proposal that the control of policy should be placed wholly in the hands of the guardians. The justification for this proposal is given in Book V It is there argued that the guardians ought to have supreme power because reason is their dominating faculty and because they can therefore be relied on to distinguish truly between what is right and what is wrong. For the morality of the state's policy can be ensured only if its direction is placed in the hands of those whose actions are determined by reason.