An introduction to surface chemistry by Eric Keightley Rideal.

By Eric Keightley Rideal.

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293K O O ð2:29Þ O Among the catalysts used, CuCl revealed to be the most efficient. On the contrary, when Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III), and Au(III) salts have been used as catalysts, no carbonate has been produced, also if the substrate has been converted. This is due to the formation of such kind of polymer (black tar is found on the inner wall of the reactor) that occurs when the noble metal salts/[BMIm][PhSO3] systems have been used. In the absence of metal salt as catalyst, the reaction did not yield any product even after a long reaction time.

Keywords: Linear carbonates, Cyclic carbonate, Carbon dioxide, Olefins oxida- tive carboxylation, Epoxide carboxylation, Transesterification reactions, Urea, Glycerol 1. 1) using carbon dioxide or urea (which can be considered an active form of carbon dioxide) may represent today an interesting alternative to conventional reactants used so far for industrial chemistry. The successful method to their synthesis has been based for long time on the reaction between an alcohol, or phenol, or glycol and phosgene.

2 Use of other oxidants Other research groups have studied this synthetic approach using different oxidants instead of O2. Sun et al. (250, 251) have reported the one-pot synthesis of styrene carbonate from styrene using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidant in the presence of quaternary ammonium halides (in particular Bu4NBr) or imidazolium salts. The styrene carbonate yield is 38%, but as homogeneous conditions are used, this approach presents drawbacks such as the long reaction time and the separation and recycling of the catalyst.

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