Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory by James B. Freeman

By James B. Freeman

This monograph first provides a style of diagramming argument macrostructure, synthesizing the normal circle and arrow strategy with the Toulmin version. A theoretical justification of this technique via a dialectical knowing of argument, a serious exam of Toulmin on warrants, an intensive dialogue of the linked-convergent contrast, and an account of the correct reconstruction of enthymemes follows.

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For these persons, the premises in those subsets would be seen as relevant to the conclusion. But not all persons need have acquired such inference habits. These persons, when confronted with an argument from a subset of the premises to the conclusion, would ask the relevance question of those premises, and the remaining premises will explain the relevance. 7 Hence, we should diagram our demand-increase/priceincrease Modus ponens argument as Fig. 16. As Toulmin indicates (Toulmin 1958, 97), in answering the data-generating question, our proponent may present a plurality of facts to support his claim.

Just what this is and how it raises questions for the standard approach and indeed for the whole issue of recognizing the structure of arguments, we turn to next. 3 Toulmin’s Layout of Arguments In The Uses of Argument (1958), Stephen Toulmin proposes a radically different approach to displaying argument structure. We must, however, enter this caveat. Although we may read Toulmin as presenting a method for analyzing argument texts, arguments as products, which is a very natural reading and how some authors have read him, we must question whether this reading is appropriate.

Law allowed states, municipalities, and other governmental jurisdictions to enfranchise non-citizens who had green cards and who had lived within their jurisdictions for at least 10 years to vote in local elections. Then even should the challenger’s objection be true, it does not show that Jones cannot vote in the municipal elections. If it were an established fact that Jones is not an American citizen, and not just a mooted possibility, the combined fact that he had a green card and had lived in Westwood for 10 years would again undercut the force of the defeater.

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