Aspects of European History 1789-1980 (University by Stephen J. Lee

By Stephen J. Lee

In this sequel to his renowned Aspects of ecu historical past, 1494 - 1789, Stephen J. Lee charts the main typically encountered themes of 19th and 20th century historical past, from the origins of the French Revolution, throughout the social and political reforms and upheavals of the final centuries to the present.

Helpful and obtainable, the ebook includes:

* an invigorating consultant and sound resource of historical past fabric
* brief analytical chapters
* an interpretative method of heritage, delivering more than a few viewpoints on each one subject
* either a vast survey and particular studies
* stimulation for student's skill to improve and make clear theme
* a cautious constitution which aids notetaking, coaching of essays and revision.

Any pupil of ecu historical past probably want to have this booklet at their side throughout their direction studies.

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Thus a huge gap opened between his own strategy and its tactical execution by his subordinates. One result was Ney’s failure to turn the advantage created by Napoleon in the Battle of Bautzen into a decisive victory. Another was a series of French disasters in Spain as inexperienced marshals struggled to apply elusive and only partly known Napoleonic rules of warfare. It is ironical that one of the powers which eventually defeated Napoleon had itself been a victim of the same problem. Under Frederick the Great (1740–86) Prussia had been excessively centralized and had become totally dependent on the personality and policies of the king.

1 *** It could be argued in Metternich’s defence that he was confronted with intolerable difficulties which impeded any progressive elements of his political programme. Certainly he was not slow to draw attention to these. Referring to the cumbersome operation of the whole government system, he complained of the obstacles with which he had to contend in the bureaucracy, especially the ‘lack of energy’. He was fortunate in having the support of the Emperor Francis, whose confidence was evident in his Political Will (1835).

In enforcing the blockade, Napoleon over-extended the borders of his influence. The occupation of Spain in 1808 to compel the Iberian Peninsula to close its ports to Britain was a serious mistake: it created, in the Peninsular War, a constant drain on French resources. ‘Those devilish Spanish affairs’,19 compounded as they were by guerrilla warfare and the first signs of British military success, kept several hundred thousand troops occupied. These were increasingly needed elsewhere in Europe, for Alexander began to express dissatisfaction with the Tilsit settlement by flouting Napoleon’s Continental System.

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