Astrophysics of the Diffuse Universe by Professor Michael A. Dopita, Dr. Ralph S. Sutherland (auth.)

By Professor Michael A. Dopita, Dr. Ralph S. Sutherland (auth.)

The booklet is designed as an astrophysics textbook to supply a entire advent to the physics of Interstellar topic. it really is aimed basically at these venture postgraduate classes, or these doing complex tasks as a part of honours undergraduate classes in physics or astrophysics. it may additionally supply a convenient connection with the sector for astrophysics college and different researchers who're now not unavoidably specialists during this specific subdiscipline. the target of the booklet is to teach how physics could be utilized to the certainty and prognosis of the part constitution, the actual stipulations and the chemical makeup and evolution of the interstellar medium. in response to the authors' lecture path adventure, the following a scientific procedure has been followed to help the improvement of the reader's perception into the physics underlying the subject.

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43) There are 2J + 1 possible values of K for a given J. 45) and B=_h_. K = 0. K = simplifies the algebra to give ° CJ+I,K-J,K = B(J + l)(J + 2) = 2B(J + 1) cm- I + (A - B)K2 - [BJ(J + 1) + (A - B)K2] . 47) Thus, a symmetric top molecule like ammonia again gives a linearly spaced spectrum separated by 2B! In practice, the symmetric top spectrum does depend somewhat upon K, as the molecule is not entirely rigid. High values of K can spread out the three base atoms, rather like the speed regulator seen on old steam engines, increasing the angular momentum on the principal axis.

These molecules emit in the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and produce a spectrum of emission or absorption lines which are nearly equally spaced in frequency (or energy). These lines are formed by transitions between quantized rotational energy levels which are directly related to the moments of inertia of the molecules along 26 2. Line Emission Processes the various axes of symmetry. Since molecules may have many atoms, these moments of inertia may differ one from another.

E. 1 s2 2s2 3p 1) / = Total Level Angular Momentum: Vector sum of Land 5 of a particular level in a term. Fig. 4. Spectral notation for an atomic term comprised of one or more levels. that they have principal quantum number n, the term is a doublet (although in this particular case the lower value of j would be negative, so one of the levels of the doublet cannot exist), the orbital angular momentum is zero (S state) and the total angular momentum is 1/2. Now consider the orbital angular momentum l = 1.

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