Athlete Performance and Injuries (Sports and Athletics by Joao H. Bastos

By Joao H. Bastos

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2008). , 2006). Because CRP can amplify the proinflammatory response through complement activation, tissue damage, and activation of endothelial cells (Libby et al. 2002), this polymorphism may contribute to a worse performance and also, over time, to loss of muscle mass and strength and CVD risk in athletes, particularly middle-aged athletes who exercise extensively. 2. , 2011). , 2009). In general, IL-1 acts synergistically with TNF-, activating proinflammatory responses in a wide range of cells and promoting the acute phase response.

In fact, MTHFR C677T polymorphism has been associated with a lower hemoglobin level in a healthy exercise-trained population (Fortunato et al. 2007). Moreover, hemolysis can occur as a result of mechanical trauma in the capillaries of runners’ feet 32 Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela (Carlson and Mawdsley, 1986), which would compromise performance still more in carriers of these variants. , 2011c). Hence, these results indicate that MTHFR polymorphisms should be better investigated in the context of performance and future CVD risk in athletes, particularly middle-aged athletes who exercise extensively, because besides the facts discussed above, CRP is present in atherosclerotic plaques, where it might exert several potential proinflammatory and atherogenic actions that include the binding of oxidized LDL cholesterol, induction of adhesion molecule expression, activation of complement, and stimulation of tissue factor production by monocytes (Brull et al.

Thus, inflammation may serve as a mechanism promoting hypertrophy. , 2010). TNF- is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that has effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance and endothelial function. , 1999). , 2008), besides stimulating the production of interleukin (IL-6) and thereby inducing the hepatic production of C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive biomarker of the 3 STRs or microsatellites are hypervariable short sequences of DNA, normally of length 2-5 base pairs, that are interspersed throughout the human genome and repeated numerous times in tandem (in a head-to-tail fashion at a specific chromosomal locus).

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