By A.V. Khotkevich, Igor K. Yanson, Randal C. Reinertson
The features of electric contacts have lengthy attracted the eye of researchers given that those contacts are utilized in each electric and digital gadget. previous stories more often than not thought of electric contacts of huge dimensions, having areas of present focus with diameters considerably greater than the attribute dimensions of the cloth: the interatomic distance, the suggest unfastened course for electrons, the coherence size within the superconducting country, and so forth. . the improvement of microelectronics provided to scientists and engineers the duty of learning the features of electric contacts with ultra-small dimensions. features of element contacts similar to mechanical balance less than non-stop present a lot, the magnitudes of electric fluctuations, inherent sensitivity in radio units and nonlinear features in reference to electromagnetic radiation cannot be understood and adjusted within the required means with out wisdom of the actual methods happening in contacts. until eventually lately it was once inspiration that conductivity of contacts with direct conductance (without tunneling or semiconducting boundaries) obeyed Ohm's legislations. Nonlinearities of the current-voltage features have been defined by way of joule heating of the steel within the area of the touch. in spite of the fact that, reviews of the current-voltage features of metal element contacts at low (liquid helium) temperatures  confirmed that heating results have been negligible in lots of situations and the nonlinear features less than those stipulations have been saw to take the shape of the power established likelihood of inelastic electron scattering, prompted via a variety of mechanisms.
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Additional resources for Atlas of Point Contact Spectra of Electron-Phonon Interactions in Metals
In some arrangements for measuring the second derivative of the current-voltage characteristics [114, 115] the amplitude of the current modulation automatically changes with changes in the differential resistance of the contact in such a way that the modulation voltage has a constant form. )2 d - - - . : - - - - - - (In R). , and the ~ffective value of the voltage of the second harmonic of the modulation signal, Y2, is ~roportional to the second derivative of the current-voltage characteristics, d I/dy2.
The contact has a metallic-type resistance). The indicated increase does not exceed a few tens of percent for a change in energy from 0 to hw max . In most cases the increase of the differential resistance in this energy interval is a few percent. 2. Large peaks in the second derivative of the current-voltage characteristics are observed in the fundamental energy region 0 :s eV :s hWmax (usually the order of magnitude of hWmax is well known). For larger energies (eV > hw max) the magnitude of the second derivative of the current-voltage curve is nearly constant (background) (see Figure 16).
Figure 44 The phonon density of states in potassium: 1, 2, 3 - calculations , , . 4 Copper Crystal lattice: FCC References. Point contact spectroscopy: [1,3,4, 13,77, 133, 136, 142, 144, 145, 168,217-219,243,312,320,322,335,337]. EPI functions: [150, 168,225]. Phonon density of states: [27,152, 188,216,242,260,262,278,299,304,306,309,313, 324]. Table 9 Values of the EPI point contact function for copper.