By Thomas Bieber Davis(auth.)
Chapter 1 Machining (pages 1–18):
Chapter 2 Metals (pages 19–23):
Chapter three maintenance and Rebuilding (pages 24–31):
Chapter four equipment Inspection and size (pages 32–58):
Chapter five Lubrication (pages 59–68):
Chapter 6 Bearings (pages 69–87):
Chapter 7 Shaft Alignment (pages 88–94):
Chapter eight V?Belt Drives (pages 95–112):
Chapter nine Mechanical Bushings (pages 113–117):
Chapter 10 electrical energy (pages 118–121):
Chapter eleven electrical cars (pages 122–137):
Chapter 12 Centrifugal Pumps (pages 138–154):
Chapter thirteen commercial enthusiasts (pages 155–173):
Chapter 14 Welding (pages 174–177):
Chapter 15 Miscellaneous info (pages 178–186):
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Extra resources for Audel Industrial Multi-Craft Mini-Ref
CPM = 50 u 60 = 3000 CPM If the frequency of vibration is 3600 CPM, what is the frequency in CPS? CPS = CPM ÷ 60 CPS = 3600 ÷ 60 = 60 cycles per second, or 60 hertz If displacement is graphed over a period of time, most mechanical rotating machinery has a sinewave shape. The tops and bottoms of the waves represent the extreme movements. The total height from the bottom to the top is the peaktopeak displacement. ) ■ MACHINERY INSPECTION AND MEASUREMENT 2 mils 46 Vibration #1 1 second 2 mils What is the frequency of Vibration #1 graphed here in CPM?
58 ■ MACHINERY INSPECTION AND MEASUREMENT DETECTING A BAD BEARING While there are many sophisticated electronic instruments that indicate bad antifriction bearings, the seasoned multicraftsman can accomplish the same thing by listening to the sound of a bearing, with the help of some simple devices. A long screwdriver, a mechanic’s stethoscope, or even the brim of a hard hat can be brought into play. The technique can be learned in less than a minute. ” Imagine being at the seashore late at night and hearing the sounds of the waves lapping on the shore.
Vibration has a similar effect on machinery and bearings. More displacement or higher frequency can cause damage. 48 ■ MACHINERY INSPECTION AND MEASUREMENT The bearings in any machine are subjected to force as the machine does useful work. The machine designer or engineer sizes and chooses bearings that will provide for good service life by handling the forces that are considered to be normal and expected. Bearings are not designed to contend with destructive forces due to adverse machinery conditions or machine element faults such as unbalance, misalignment between components, improper belt tension, eccentricity, uneven wear, looseness, and even vibration caused by surrounding equipment.