Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr

By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr

For so much americans, September eleven, 2001, symbolized the instant while their safeguard used to be altered. For center jap and Muslim americans, September 11 additionally ushered in a backlash within the type of hate crimes, discrimination, and a string of devastating executive tasks. This ebook offers the 1st finished research of the effect of the post-9/11 occasions on center jap and Muslim american citizens in addition to their equipped reaction. via fieldwork and interviews with neighborhood leaders, Anny Bakalian and Mehdi Bozorgmehr convey how ethnic businesses mobilized to illustrate their dedication to the us whereas protecting their rights and distancing themselves from the terrorists.

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S. government. BACKLASH 19 We contend that in the post–civil rights era state-sponsored backlash has been tempered by the law and the belief of the American public in the principles of civil rights. Therefore, lower levels of government subjugation have triggered mobilization and activism by the targeted populations. Leaders of preexisting community-based and advocacy organizations have galvanized their constituents to seize the moment. To maintain the status quo, to do nothing or to accept the backlash, would have been detrimental for the reputation of the leaders and the longevity of their organizations.

The hysteria led to the banning of Beethoven’s music in Boston and the burning of German books in Lima, Ohio. Many German American institutions and organizations conformed to the demands of superpatriots. For example, Lutheran churches switched their service to English, and many German Americans anglicized their names (Gerstle 2004; Luebke 1974; Reimers 1998). The declaration of war led to the development of an ideology of “unhyphenated Americanism,” including the 100 Per Cent Americanism movement.

Robert Benford and David Snow (2000) emphasize that frames have to be “culturally resonant” and morally justifiable if a claim is to be accepted and supported by the larger society. In other words, framing processes must garner a sympathetic audience in the mainstream and, just as important, must win concessions from those with political power (Buechler 2000). According to Douglas McAdam and David Snow, those who articulate frames are “not merely . . carriers of existing ideas and meanings, but .

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