Brain Mechanisms in Mental Retardation by Nathaniel A. Buchwald

By Nathaniel A. Buchwald

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The obtained percentages [for details see Figure 11a, in Altman (2)] indicate regional variations in the proportion of granule cells acquired after 11 days of age. Light diagonal lines, early maturing regions; heavy diagonal lines, intermediate regions; black, late maturing regions. From Altman (2). 3 2 . Interference with Cerebellar Maturation 45 3 DAYS 6 HRS I HR Ml) o PM •o#o## ommomm • • o• oo«# o# ## oo o o o OOOO o o o o • • 0 « 0 « * 0 0 OO^O o o o « 24 HRS ©©©©©© ©©o©o© © © © © © © © © © © © © < ^ o o o o o o ^ • o o o ©©oo©o o©o©©o ©©©©©© ©©©©©© o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o FIGURE 4.

For details, see Rakic et al. (54). 29 30 Pasko Rakic i n t h e c o r t i c a l plate h a s b e e n c o n v i n c i n g l y d e m o n s t r a t e d also i n t h e rat t e l e n c e p h a l o n at late s t a g e s o f c o r t i c o g e n e s i s ( 4 2 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r a d i a l a l i g n m e n t of dendrites of pyramidal neurons described in adult animals (7,14,43) m a y reflect t h e m e c h a n i s m o f cell m i g r a t i o n to t h e c o r t e x . T h i s s u b j e c t also m e r i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t e r m s of t h e f u n c t i o n a l c o l u m n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e v i s u a l c o r t e x ( 2 6 , 2 7 ) .

Arrows indicate cerebral wall. B . Photomicrograph of the Golgi preparation used for the drawing in A taken from the area outlined by the rectangle. C and D. Photomicrographs of two migrating young neurons (MN) oriented parallel to radial glial fibers (RF) in 95-day monkey fetus. E. Photographically enlarged segment of the radial glial fiber passing through the intermediate zone. Note numerous lamellate expansions present at E95. 25 26 Pasko A IOOM Rakic B 1. Timing of Major Ontogenetic Events 27 w h o s e l e n g t h i s o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h e total m i g r a t o r y p a t h w a y o f t h e e x p a n d e d c e r e b r a l w a l l at t h e s e a g e s ( F i g u r e 1 4 B ) .

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