By Gertz Likhtenshtein, Jun Yamauchi, Shin'ichi Nakatsuji, Alex I. Smirnov, Rui Tamura

This can be the 1st ebook to provide the required quantum chemical equipment for either resonance varieties in a single convenient quantity, emphasizing the an important interrelation among NMR and EPR parameters from a computational and theoretical viewpoint.

the following, readers are given a large evaluation of the entire pertinent themes, akin to simple thought, methodic issues, benchmark effects and purposes for either spectroscopy equipment in such fields as biochemistry, bioinorganic chemistry in addition to with diversified substance periods, together with fullerenes, zeolites and transition steel compounds. The chapters were written by means of top specialists in a given zone, yet with a much wider viewers in brain.

the result's the traditional reference at the subject, serving as a consultant to the simplest computational equipment for any given challenge, and is therefore an fundamental software for scientists utilizing quantum chemical calculations of NMR and EPR parameters.

vital for all chemists, physicists, biologists and fabrics scientists who desire to increase their study by way of quantum chemical calculations of magnetic resonance facts, yet who're no longer unavoidably experts in those equipment or their purposes. moreover, experts in a single of the subdomains of this large box could be thankful to discover right here an summary of what lies past their very own quarter of concentration.

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11, whereas the latter is a linear function of α. The signiﬁcant physical solutions are those where the two curves intersect. The unquestioned solution that occurs at the origin is devoid of meaning. Lowering the temperature the slope of the linear function gradually decreases, so that we have another intersection in addition to the origin, revealing the presence of the spontaneous magnetization. 13 illustrates this mathematical meaning in three temperature regions, T > TC, T = TC, and T < TC. It is essential that, at TC, the linear function is a tangent line to the Brillouin function, and that, below TC, spontaneous magnetization starts to grow.

To summarize this section, diamagnetism is a counteraction of electrons against the magnetic ﬁeld so as to reduce the increment of magnetic ﬂux caused by the applied ﬁeld. This is a universal action of electrons. In the presence of magnetic moments originating from electrons such as paramagnetic materials, the opposite action – that is, a cooperative increase of the magnetic ﬂux – takes place very readily, as if a magnetic bar is aligned along the direction of magnetic ﬁeld. Note that these reactions, diamagnetic and paramagnetic, are combined additively.

13 Graphical illustration of Brillouin function and spontaneous magnetization. At T > Tc the dotted line crosses only at the origin (α = 0) and at T < Tc the dashed line hits at α ≠ 0. At T = Tc a solid line becomes a tangent. 14 Spontaneous magnetization for J = 1/2, J = 1, and J = ∞. 15 Hysteresis curve. Magnetization initially starts at the origin (O) and reaches its saturation magnetization (Ms). During the process of reducing magnetic ﬁelds, magnetization remains at H = 0 (Mr) and, for an opposite magnetic ﬁeld, Hc, magnetization vanishes.