By Roland Scheer
This primary finished description of crucial fabric houses and equipment facets closes the space among common books on sun cells and magazine articles on chalcogenide-based photovoltaics.
Written by means of very popular authors with years of useful adventure within the box, the publication covers II-VI and I-III-VI2 fabrics in addition to power conversion at heterojunctions. It additionally discusses the most recent semiconductor heterojunction versions and offers smooth research thoughts. skinny movie know-how is defined with an emphasis on present and destiny suggestions for mass creation, and the booklet closes with a compendium of failure research in photovoltaic skinny movie modules.
With its evaluation of the semiconductor physics and know-how wanted, this sensible ebook is perfect for college kids, researchers, and brands, in addition to for the becoming variety of engineers and researchers operating in businesses and institutes on chalcogenide photovoltaics.
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Extra info for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics: Physics, Technologies, and Thin Film Devices
In conclusion, acceptor states at the buffer/absorber (or buffer/window) interface push the Fermi energy downwards and diminish the inversion. In contrast, donor states energetically located close to the conduction band can enhance the inversion. Certainly, interface states not only modify the band bending but also can contribute to recombination. For instance, there could be a trade off between beneﬁcial donor states in terms of inversion and detrimental donor states in terms of recombination.
3 Energy Band Diagrams surface. Thus, in an absorber/buffer/window heterostructure, the buffer/window interface can be extremely important. Now, we consider the more realistic case that the Fermi energy at the interface determines the charge in a given interface state density. 39) in the case of acceptor and donor states of density NA,IF and ND,IF . EA,IF and ED,IF are the energy levels of the interface acceptor and donor states and F1/2 is the Fermi–Dirac function. 40) Due to the exponential term in the Fermi–Dirac function (and also in the Boltzmann approximation), Eqs.
If the capture cross sections for electrons and holes are largely different (which is normally the case) a steady state occupancy with one charge carrier type may occur. The trapped photo generated charge carriers then may alter the band diagram with respect to the case without illumination. 12 where the absorber of 1016 cm−3 p-type doping contains 5 × 1017 cm−3 deep acceptors energetically located at midgap energy. 6d). If it is σp holes photo generated within the absorber layer will become trapped in the deep acceptor states thus reducing the net negative charge close to the buffer/absorber junction.