Chemical Transport Reactions by Harald Schafer

By Harald Schafer

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Those transport reactions with gaseous sodium chloride, and other such chlorides, have been proposed for the purification of beryllium, titanium, vanadium, and uranium<101-104> Be + 2 NaCl(f) = BeCl2(i/) + 2 Na({7); (1000°C -+ Ti); Str (19) They impose some requirements on the material used in the apparatus. Gross and Levi,*101) for example, used sintered corundum tubes lined with molybdenum. Other halides should also be taken into consideration as a means of transport in the place of NaCl(^). The halides of the easily vola­ tilized, and not so active metals, zinc,*105) cadmium, and mercury may in many situations offer certain advantages.

The molybdenum transport which takes place from the hot molybdenum wire to the less hot, sintered alumina sup­ port (98> in an atmosphere of a protective gas can apparently be traced back t o this process. 46 3 The Transport of Solid Substances 98 Gallium is transported* ^) in the presence of a small quantity of water (and hydrogen) via its gaseous suboxide (~1000°C ->T{) Eight-tenths milligram H2O in an ampule of 37 cm 3 volume is sufficient to induce a significant gallium transport. 4 Metal Chlorides Transport with Hydrogen Chloride or Volatile Characteristic examples of metal transport with hydrogen chloride are given in Eqs.

Silicon is transported in a stream of the silicon tetrahalide at temperatures of around 1000°C, a fact known to Troost and Hautefeuille/ 3 ) Equilibrium studies have indicated that, for this transport, the formation of the dihalide is critical/ 8 4 - 8 6 ) Si + SiX4(i7) = 2 SiX 2(i7 ); 1100 -> 900°C; Str, R (X = F , Cl, Br, I) (12) Silicon transport has been carried out with the fluorides<3>18) as well as with the chlorides/3*9'11*18) bromides, 0-1*18) and iodides/ 11 ) The significance of the experimental technique is interesting, especially in the chloride system.

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