By James M. Postma
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Extra resources for Chemistry in the Laboratory
Precision in Microscale Titration When the end point of a titration is approached in a dropwise manner with the buret tip not immersed in the sample solution, the minimum uncertainty in locating the end point is determined by the volume resolution of the buret, ⌬V, the smallest volume increment of the titrant that can be delivered in a controlled and reproducible fashion (~1 drop volume). For a sharp end point, where the volume interval of the color change is smaller than the volume resolution, a good predictor of the relative uncertainty (or relative standard deviation) is the ratio volume resolution/buret capacity, ⌬V/V.
019 g). The standard deviation can be related to the conﬁdence interval, or the range about the mean value in which one of a group of measurements may be expected to fall. If we recognize that the Gaussian error distribution is a distribution of the probabilities of obtaining a particular measurement, we see that the probability of measurements occurring close to the mean will be greater than the probability of a measurement occurring far away from the mean. 68, or 68%, probability that a given measurement will fall within plus or minus one standard deviation of the mean value.
2000, 77, 625. 5 Singh, M. ; Pike, R. M. “A Modiﬁed Microburet for Microscale Titration,” J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 371. 6 Roberts, J. L. “Precision in Microscale Titration” (Letter), J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941. 02 mL (~1 drop). 02 mL/1 mL ϫ 100 ϭ 2%. This is improved to 1% using a 2-mL buret. End Point Sharpness—The Microscale Advantage A smaller relative uncertainty means that one can, in principle, achieve a more precise titration. 05 mL (~1 drop). In practice, we have observed that the relative precision is typically a factor of 2–4 times larger using 1-mL burets.