By Robert E. Sanders
In Cognitive Foundations of Calculated Speech, Robert E. Sanders exhibits that no matter if one communicates to get a reaction or to make one, the cognitive challenge is the same—to calculate no matter if meant speech and behaviour may have a fascinating impression at the growth of the unfolding discourse or discussion. The e-book information the data base and rules for making such calculations.
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Additional resources for Cognitive Foundations of Calculated Speech: Controlling Understandings in Conversation and Persuasion (Suny Series in Human Communication Processes)
It fully supports this analysis, and the underlying conceptualization here, that all else having failed, E explicitly spoke to the interpretive issue in her three successive final turns: "I never meant it to be nasty" (turn 73); "when I say it, I don't mean it, so don't get mad" (turn 75); and finally, ''So . . but . . you . . you know what I mean" (turn 77). A number of the specific contentions that were made above are exemplified in Conversation I. First, a communicator (in this case E), armed with something to communicate and the means of expressing it may nonetheless fail.
Second, it is clear that entries in a discourse or dialogue affect the way subsequent utterances and behaviors will be interpreted. F's disclosure is by no means the only instance of this in the conversation, but it is by far the most visible. Page 16 Third, when participants work at cross-purposes to control the way a dialogue unfolds, the result is the sort of confusion and breakdown evident in Conversation I after turn 62. Fourth, the formulating of utterances and behavior on the basis of projections of their interpretive consequences is evident from E's efforts to deal with the constraints produced by F's disclosure well in advance of undertaking the task of stating and resolving complaints.
Thereby to make different actions and reactions more or less likely. It happens that to be understood as one intends, and thus to promote or discourage certain (re)actions, it is not enough to form utterances and nonverbal displays according to rules of language, conventions of utterance, and conventions of nonverbal meaning and nonverbal display. This is because one's utterances and nonverbal displays are Page viii understood in terms of meanings that make them relevantthat contribute to the coherence and progress of the unfolding discourse or dialogue.