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Extra info for Cognitive Procs. in the Perception of Art [psych.]
That is to say, for Cassirer symbols do not have an independent conventional meaning that can be easily transmitted; rather, symbolic meaning is mutually determined by the relationship between the total intention behind the work and the specific embodiment of that intention in forms and materials. Kose also considers the implications of these two theories for empirical enquiries into symbol use in the arts. He briefly reviews some of the findings of the Harvard Project Zero group; and he suggests that Some of the results about individual differences in the acquisition of symbol systems, and the many factors which influence such acquisition, call into question the validity of Goodman's analysis of the organization of symbolic meaning.
Understanding the functions and structures of a symbol system is described as the result of an interaction between developing intellectual capacities and the rules and restrictions of the various systems within a culture. An example can be seen in Gardner's description of the development of artistry in children (1982,pp. 86-91). Having investigated children's drawing ability and their use of literary l a n g ~ a g e , Gardner ~ notes that despite differences between these two domains there is a common course of development.
46). He also notes that it appears that what is expressed is directly tied to the properties of the symbolic medium and can be directly perceived in contrast to representation that depends on convention. However, despite these apparent distinctions Goodman argues that expression depends on the same conventional semantic relationship as representation. He rejects the possibility that expressions can be directly perceived. A symbol cannot literally copy a feeling or emotion, and often an expression is remote from the symbol itself, for example, a painting expressing heat.