By R. M. Steinman, A. Granelli-Piperno, M. Pope, C. Trumpfheller, R. Ignatius, G. Arrode (auth.), Prof. Dr. Alexander Steinkasserer (eds.)
Dendritic cells (DC) are very important to urge powerful anti-viral immune responses. besides the fact that, viruses have built a great number of various get away mechanisms with a view to conquer the host immune approach. a major goal during this recognize are DC, when you consider that they're the single antigen proposing mobilephone capable of set off additionally naive T cells. within the current CTMI-volume the interplay among a number of viruses, together with HIV-1, SIV, EBV, measles virus, LCMV and HSV-1, with DC should be defined and mentioned. it is going to turn into transparent to the reader that DC usually play a twin function in the course of viral infections. at the one hand they may be able to mount effective antiviral immune responses, and the opposite hand a number of viruses, together with HIV-1, use DC as a vector to be transferred from the outer edge to the lymph nodes have been they infect their leading aim cells. within the moment a part of this quantity numerous DC particular immune intervention ideas may be provided. This contains subject matters reminiscent of DC vaccination concepts in immunotherapy, viral vectors for the genetic amendment of DC and pass presentation of virus contaminated cells via DC.
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Dendritic cells (DC) are very important to urge effective anti-viral immune responses. even though, viruses have built quite a few various break out mechanisms which will conquer the host immune process. a major aim during this appreciate are DC, due to the fact that they're the single antigen offering mobile in a position to result in additionally naive T cells.
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Additional resources for Dendritic Cells and Virus Infection
J. (1998). Immunophenotypic characterization of SIV-infected cells in cervix vagina and draining lymph nodes of chronically infected rhesus macaques. Lab Invest 78 435–451 Igarashi T, Brown C. R, Endo Y, Buckler-White A, Plishka R, Bischofberger N, Hirsch V, and Martin M. A. (2001). Macrophages are the principal reservoir and sustain high virus loads in rhesus macaques after the depletion of CD4+ T cells by a highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV type 1 chimera (SHIV): Implications for HIV-1 infections of humans.
However, DCs are not efficiently infected by HIV-1, and instead capture the virus with high efficiency and subsequently transport it from the periphery into the lymphoid tissues. Here, DC-bound HIV-1 is transmitted to T cells expressing CD4 and HIV-1 co-receptors, mediating viral entry and productive infection. Thus the minute amounts of HIV-1 initially encountered by DCs are very rapidly transported to the T cell compartment, leading to a full-blown infection in T cells. The molecular basis behind this process remained unclear until the DC-specific HIV-1 trans-receptor DC-SIGN was recently identified (Geijtenbeek et al.
S, and Seder R. A. (1999). Differential effects of CD40 ligand/trimer stimulation on the ability of dendritic cells to replicate and transmit HIV infection: evidence for CC-chemokine-dependent and -independent mechanisms. -P, Oksenhendler E, Debre P, and Hosmalin A. (1995). Infection frequency of dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleens of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. J Virol 69 4737–4745 Mehlhop E, Villamide L. A, Frank I, Gettie A, Santisteban C, Messmer D, Ignatius R, Lifson J.