By Terri Meyer Boake
Diagrids are load-bearing constructions made up of metal diagonal grids. They have been first utilized in the good structures of the flip of the millennium, corresponding to the Swiss Re Tower in London ("The Gherkin") and the Hearst journal Tower in ny urban. Diagrids owe their resulting recognition not just to their lovely aesthetic price, but additionally to their very tangible advantages: an important saving of fabric, an important achieve in open, usable ground zone, and elevated flexibility. The booklet appears to be like at modern diagrid structures resembling Capital Gate (Abu Dhabi), Guangzhou IFC (China), Bow Encana (Calgary), CCTV (China) and the Doha Tower (Qatar) to set up an figuring out of the method of the layout of this leading edge style. At its commencing in 2014, The Leadenhall development in London stands out as the first skyscraper with out a bearing internal core--thanks to a diagrid constitution. This publication explains comprehensively for the 1st time all the elements taken with this new bearing constitution. the writer, skilled in instructing, learn, and perform (recent booklet: realizing metal layout: An Architectural layout guide, 2011), has tracked the improvement of this know-how from its beginnings and employs thorough photographic documentation of the development levels of many diagrid buildings.
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Extra info for Diagrid Structures
It was not until the mid-1960s that wind testing of buildings was even considered as a potential aspect of the design of buildings. At this point such testing would have been considered only for buildings that were very tall or might have unusual snow drifting patterns. This would have been upon the advice of the structural engineer and would not have been mandatory. Major firms whose business focuses on wind tunnel testing only came on the scene in the early 1970s. Yet wind tunnel testing has been around for more than 100 years but was primarily used by the auto and aviation industries to study vehicle performance.
The module of the diagrid does not correspond with the floor height to span an even number of floors, as the connection points of the diagrid are not cleanly aligned to office floor levels. Clearly visible from the interior, the alignment of the grid is set slightly above the floor level. The base of the diagrid is expressed and effectively serves as a railing or bench at the exterior side of the building. The module height is approximately four floors, with each diagonal spanning two floors. As the entire structure, is expressed on the interior, the visible horizontal braces that complete the triangulation of the diamond grid have been created with similar round hollow structural sections to achieve a unified appearance.
The wind engineering of this project will be discussed in Chapter 4: Technical Requirements. The curved building structure is created by using straight segments. Unlike the diagrid structure for London City Hall, the scale of Swiss Re is large enough to allow for a faceted structure that results in a curved appearance without the added complication and expense of bending the steel. The further subdivision of the triangulated diagrid pattern in the façade system assists in creating the illusion of the curved surface.