By Anton Rush, Jane Applebee
Aimed toward upper-intermediate and advanced-level novices, this is often one among a chain which bargains ELT scholars additional tips and perform in parts of the language which they locate fairly tricky. The booklet is appropriate for either school room and self-study use, and includes one hundred fifty idiom entries, divided into sections - historic, new, overseas and funny, proverbs, metaphors and similes, and slang. numerous workout varieties is integrated.
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Additional info for Help with Idioms (Heinemann English Language Practice)
O. Box 6025, 83 Gilles Street, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Copyright © 1996 Hubisi Nwenmely. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Typeset by Archetype, Stow-on-the Wold. Printed and bound in Great Britain by WBC Book Manufacturers Ltd. Page v Contents 1 Introduction 1 The Organisation of the Book 2 2 Preparing the Ground 3 Language and Identity 3 Language Maintenance and Shift 6 Language Policy and Language Planning 9 Standardisation 11 Conclusion 13 3 Sun, Sea and Oppression: Kwéyòl in the Caribbean 15 The Historical Development of French Creoles 15 Patterns of Language Use 18 Language Policy and Planning in the Caribbean 22 Kwéyòl Literacy 31 Conclusion 35 4 Cold, Rain and Oppression: The Kwéyòl Speech Community in the UK 37 Patterns of Settlement of Kwéyòl Speakers 37 Changing Patterns of Language Use 39 Language, Culture and Community 41 Conclusion 42 5 A Critical Ethnography 43 A Personal Statement 43 Methodology 45 Framework and Method of Analysis 50 Conclusion 54 6 Teaching and Learning Kwéyòl in London 55 The Kwéyòl Classes 55 Page vi Composition of the Classes 58 Why Students Come to the Classes 60 Conclusion 67 7 From Speech to Writing: Resources for Learning 69 Standardisation in the French Antilles 69 Orthographies 71 Dictionaries 81 Grammars 87 Other Materials to Support Kwéyòl Teaching 91 Conclusion 92 8 The Quest for Status: Accrediting the Kwéyòl Classes 95 Tutor Perspectives on Accreditation 95 The Kwéyòl Test 96 LOCF Accreditation 98 Student Views on Accreditation 99 Discussion 101 9 Sé Pou'w Mantjé Néyé Pou Apwann Najé: You Must Survive Drowning in Order to Learn to Swim 104 Kwéyòl in the Caribbean 105 Kwéyòl in the UK 106 The Kwéyòl Classes 107 Resources 108 Accreditation 111 Some Recurring Themes 112 Appendix: The Kwéyòl Test 117 References 131 Page 1 1 Introduction This book explores attempts to reverse language shift in the Kwéyòl speech community in London.
The majority of the population have varying levels of competence in Kwéyòl and St Lucian Creole English. Page 21 Dalphinis (1985a: 49) discusses the same phenomenon in terms of the process of relexification, in which English gradually replaces French vocabulary in an otherwise French creole structure. Take the variants which he postulates for the transition from the broad French creole gason-an ka manjé piman to the standard English the boy eats pepper: gasònakamanjépimanbbilakamanjépimanbòilakaitpèpabòiladòzitpèpadibòiitingpèpatheboyeatpepper Christy (1990) also reports a similar finding for Dominica.
Moreover, whilst Hawaiian is undoubtedly a victim of Western 'progress,' the local elites share partial responsibility for the linguistic genocide as they 'aided and abetted' the English-speaking foreigners. Edwards (1985), however, disagrees with the notion of 'linguistic murder' and adopts the fatalistic view that language shift is inevitable under certain conditions. Revivalism and educational support are futile as they do not significantly affect the powerful social forces which produce shift.