By Guo'an Wang
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It may make them linguistically more aware, thus motivating them to learn, but it may also lead them to ‘avoid all but inevitable linguistic contact with TL native speakers, thus provoking fossilization at an elementary stage’. Processing constraints L2 learners are typically found to produce grammatical and ungrammatical sentences on a random basis. When associated with this kind of behavior, fossilization is considered to arise from processing constraints rather than from lack of grammatical competence.
UG principles are assumed to function in toto during L2 learning. There will be no wild grammars and learners ultimately develop a target-like L2 grammar. Next is the Full Transfer/Full Access (FT/FA; Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996) position which holds that the L1 grammar is the point of departure for L2 learning, but UG, in toto, guides through the L2 developmental stages to such effect that learners will switch from L1 parameter settings to L2 required settings. As a consequence, there will be no wild grammars, and the end state of L2 learning will possibly be a target-like L2 grammar, but it is not inevitable.
Social, -psychological) may lead to different degrees of success in L2 learning. Yet, he also concedes that acculturation, though a major causal variable, functions only as a remote cause of SLA: Acculturation as a remote cause brings the learner into contact with TL-speakers. Verbal interaction with those speakers as a proximate cause brings about the negotiation of appropriate input which then operates as the immediate cause of language acquisition. Acculturation then is of particular importance because it initiates the chain of causality.