By Slavyanov S.Yu., Lay W.

The topic of this ebook is the speculation of targeted capabilities, no longer regarded as a listing of capabilities showing a definite diversity of houses, yet in keeping with the unified research of singularities of second-order traditional differential equations within the complicated area. The quantity and features of the singularities function a foundation for type of every person targeted functionality. hyperlinks among linear exact capabilities (as suggestions of linear second-order equations), and non-linear unique features (as recommendations of Painlevé equations) are awarded as a easy and new end result. Many functions to varied parts of physics are proven and mentioned. The ebook is written from a pragmatic standpoint and may deal with all these scientists whose paintings comprises functions of mathematical equipment. academics, graduate scholars and researchers will locate this an invaluable textual content and reference paintings.

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Their use as classification criteria of the normative species can, instead of working as a model that makes the application easier, act as an obstacle to the very construction of meaning of the norms, mostly those called rules, either because they may exclude the consideration of substantive justifying reasons for decisions foreign to the preliminary content of provisions or because they may limit the construction of axiological connections revealed among the elements of the normative system. Even though rules usually feature an operative fact, automatic application and direct conflict with other rules, these features, rather than being necessary and sufficient to classify them as rules, are merely contingent.

3. 1. Content According to some scholars, principles could be distinguished from rules by the way they work in the case of normative conflicts, because they understand the contradiction of rules carries in itself a true 20 Chapter 2 conflict that is to be resolved by declaring one of the rules to be invalid or by creating an exception, whereas the correlation of principles is a juxtaposition, which can be solved with balancing that assigns each of them a dimension of weight. 2. Critical analysis Analyzing the normative conflict is also a decisive step in perfecting the study of normative species.

On one hand, principles can be analyzed in order to aggrandize the values they protect, though not examining which behaviors are indispensable to the realization of such values and which are the tools required to justify their application within controllable limits. In this case, the importance of principles is widely proclaimed, naming them the foundations or pillars of the legal order. More than that, practically nothing. 30 Chapter 2 On the other hand, principles can be examined in order to privilege the exam of their structure, specially to find in it a rational procedure of justification that allows one not only to specify the behaviors required to realize the values they promote, but also to justify and control their application through a rational reconstruction of doctrinal statements and legal decisions.