By George Sale, George Psalmanazar, Archibald Bower, George Shelvocke, John Campbell and John Swinton.
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Additional resources for The Modern Part of the Universal History - 1759 - Folio Edition - Volume Four
Nature is consigned by technics in this sense: nature has become the assistant, the auxiliary; in similar fashion, it is exploited by technics, which has become the master. For nature to be thus exploited and consigned, it has to be considered as ground, reserve, available stock for the needs of the system that modern technics forms. " This reflexive—making oneself—designates us, us humans. Now, is technics a means through which we master nature, or rather does not technics, becoming the master of nature, master us as a part of nature?
The presence of a technological universality would then have to be proven, which Gille not only fails to do but does not even begin to do. André Leroi-Gourhan, on the other hand, starts from this very hypothesis. We have just seen the historian of technics taking up mainly two questions: firstly, that of a dynamism inherent in technics organized into a system, functioning according to its own at once rational and determinist logic; and secondly, that of a relation of such a dynamic system to the other systems, and hence of its incorporation into the global historical scheme.
Gille 1978, 48) In other words, the logic of invention is not that of the inventor. One must speak of a techno-logic, of a logic literally driving technics itself. Must one speak of a technological reason? A proof of techno-logical universality would then be required, which Gille does not offer; the question as such does not arise. It is, however, the very object of reflection for Leroi-Gourhan, for whom a universal technical tendency exists, largely independent of cultural localities where it becomes concretized as technical fact, and where it can precisely enter into conflict with local cultures that accomplish it since it is universal while they are particular.